タグ「238U (uranium)」

90Sr, 238U, 234U, 137Cs, 40K and 239/240Pu in Emmental type cheese produced in different regions of Western Europe

Title: 90Sr, 238U, 234U, 137Cs, 40K and 239/240Pu in Emmental type cheese produced in different regions of Western Europe

Author: P. Froidevaux, , J.-J. Geering, L. Pillonel, J.-O. Bosset, J.-F. Valley

Reference: Journal of Environmental Radioactivity, Volume 72, Issue 3, 2004, Pages 287–298

DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/S0265-931X(03)00179-6

Keywords: Strontium-90; Cheese; Uranium isotopes; Milk-to-cheese transfer; Food authenticity

Abstract: A method is presented for the determination of 90Sr and uranium in Emmental type cheese collected in dairy plants from different European countries. Results display a significant correlation (r=0.708, Student t-test=6.02) between the 90Sr content of the cheese and the altitude of grazing. The highest 90Sr activity is 1.13 Bq kg−1 of cheese and the lowest is 0.29 Bq kg−1. Uranium activity is very low with a highest 238U value of 27 mBq kg−1. In addition, 234U/238U ratio shows a large enrichment in 234U for every location. Without any significant indication of the geographic origin of the cheese, this enrichment is believed to be due to the geological features of the pasture, soil and underground water. These results tend to prove that the contamination of milk by uranium originates principally from the water that the cows drink instead of the forage. This finding may have a great importance in models dealing with dairy food contamination by radionuclides following a nuclear accident. Also, the 90Sr content and to a lesser extent the 234U/238U ratio could be used to trace the authenticity of the origin of the cheese. 137Cs activity is lower than the detection limit of 0.1 Bq kg−1 in all the samples collected (n=20). Based on natural 40K activity in cheese (15–21 Bq kg−1), the decontamination factor for the alkaline cations from milk to cheese is about 20. Plutonium activity stays below the detection limit of 0.3 mBq kg−1.


Different pattern of brain pro-/anti-oxidant activity between depleted and enriched uranium in chronically exposed rats

Author: P. Lestaevel, E. Romero, B. Dhieux et al.

Reference: Toxicology. — 2009. — Vol. 258, № 1. — P. 1–9.

Keywords: uranium, chemiotoxicity, radiotoxicity, neurological disturbances

Abstract: Uranium is not only a heavy metal but also an alpha particle emitter. The main toxicity of uranium is expected to be due to chemiotoxicity rather than to radiotoxicity. Some studies have demonstrated that uranium induced some neurological disturbances, but without clear explanations. A possible mechanism of this neurotoxicity could be the oxidative stress induced by reactive oxygen species imbalance. The aim of the present study was to determine whether a chronic ingestion of uranium induced anti-oxidative defence mechanisms in the brain of rats. Rats received depleted (DU) or 4% enriched (EU) uranyl nitrate in the drinking water at 2mg(-1)kg(-1)day(-1) for 9 months. Cerebral cortex analyses were made by measuring mRNA and protein levels and enzymatic activities. Lipid peroxidation, an oxidative stress marker, was significantly enhanced after EU exposure, but not after DU. The gene expression or activity of the main antioxidant enzymes, i.e. superoxide dismutase (SOD), catalase (CAT) and glutathione peroxidase (GPx), increased significantly after chronic exposure to DU. On the contrary, oral EU administration induced a decrease of these antioxidant enzymes. The NO-ergic pathway was almost not perturbed by DU or EU exposure. Finally, DU exposure increased significantly the transporters (Divalent-Metal-Transporter1; DMT1), the storage molecule (ferritin) and the ferroxidase enzyme (ceruloplasmin), but not EU. These results illustrate that oxidative stress plays a key role in the mechanism of uranium neurotoxicity. They showed that chronic exposure to DU, but not EU, seems to induce an increase of several antioxidant agents in order to counteract the oxidative stress. Finally, these results demonstrate the importance of the double toxicity, chemical and radiological, of uranium.

URL: http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/19154773

Neurotoxicity of uranium and transuranium elements

Author: Loganovsky K.N., Nechayev S.Yu., Perchuk I.V.

Reference: Український медичний часопис (Ukrainian Medical Magazine) , 2008

Keywords: uranium, transuranium elements, neurotoxicity, radiotoxicity, Shelter Object

Abstract: Physical-chemical properties, prevalence, using, and neuropsychiatric effects of uranium, including depleted uranium, and transuranium elements (mainly, plutonium and americium) are discussed in the article. It is shown the increasing role of these elements in connection with Chernobyl accident and the Shelter Object transformation to an ecologically safety system. In accordance to the recent data on neurotoxicity of uranium it is supposed the same toxicity for the transuranium elements. The neurophysiological examinations of the Shelter Object personnel have revealed the disorders of cerebral bioelectrical activity to be the basis for neuropsychiatric pathology development. Exposure to low and very low doses of ionizing radiation, neurotoxicity of uranium and transuranium elements, stress, as well as other non-radiation industrial hazards were assumed to be proposed as the possible risk factors. The study of biological effects of uranium and transuranium elements are crucial for radiobiology, radiation hygiene and neuropsychiatry. It is necessary to conduct large-scale studies in this field. The Shelter Object transformation to an ecologically safety system is the unique possibility to study of radiotoxical effects of uranium and transuranium elements on the human body. (full text available on web)

URL: http://www.umj.com.ua/wp-content/uploads/archive/64/pdf/31_rus.pdf?upload

Radionuclides in ground waters from observation holes in the Shelter local area (probably English)

Author: Odintsov, A. A.; Khan, V. E.; Krasnov, V. A.; Pazukhin, E. M.

Reference: Gazette “Radiochemistry”, 2007

ISSN: 0033-8311

DOI: 621.039.542

Keywords: drinking water, contamination, water pollution, radioisotopes, ricer, lake

Abstract: The volume activity of 3H, 90Sr, 137Cs, 234U, 235U, 238U, 238Pu, 239+240Pu, and 241Am in ground waters from observation holes 1-G-6-G in the north section of the Shelter local area of the Chernobyl Nuclear Power Plant (CNPP) was measured. The distribution of radionuclides in the suspension fractions of the ground waters was evaluated. The main contribution to the pollution of ground waters with uranium is due to natural uranium isotopes: 234,235,238U. The activity ratios of 238Pu, 239+240Pu, and 241Am in ground waters are similar to those in the spent fuel of 4th CNPP block.

URL: http://connection.ebscohost.com/c/articles/27081216/radionuclides-ground-waters-from-observation-holes-shelter-local-area

Radionuclides and microelements in natural waters in the zone of a uranium-vanadium deposit (Republic of Karelia) (English)


Author: Lukin A.A., Mel’nik N.A.

Reference: Gazette “Water Resources”, 2006

ISSN: 0097-8087

DOI: 10.1134/S009780780601009X

Keywords: radionuclides, water, soil, fish, concentration of uranium and vanadium

Abstract: The results of studies performed in the area of a uranium-vanadium deposit are used to characterize the concentration and distribution of microelements and radionuclides in water, soil, and fish. The exposure rate on the surface of the examined samples is found to be equal to 15�20 �r/h, i.e., to lie at the background level, which means that these samples are not an external radiation hazard for population. Concentrations of U and V in water somewhat greater than background values were recorded, though they are lower than MAC for fishery water bodies. The collected data show that a delicate equilibrium has formed in this territory, although the hydrochemical characteristics have not changed within the recent 40 years, and radionuclide content of water, soil, bottom sediments, and fish are at an extremely low level.


URL: http://direct.bl.uk/bld/PlaceOrder.do?UIN=183368045&ETOC=RN&from=searchengine

Effect of multiple irrigation with water, containing radionuclides, accumulating in different organs of agricultural plants

Author: Mel’chenko A.I., Zhivchikov V.G., Mel’chenko E.A.

Reference: Gazette “ТРУДЫ КУБАНСКОГО ГОСУДАРСТВЕННОГО АГРАРНОГО УНИВЕРСИТЕТА“ (Proceedings of Kuban State Agrarian University), 2011

ISSN: 1999-1703

DOI: 504.53.062.4

Keywords: 134cs, 238u, accumulation, agricultural products

Abstract: Article on detailed experiments, as well as its prevention, on accumulation of radionuclides 134cs and 238u in bracts and cabbages.

URL: http://elibrary.ru/item.asp?id=17050712

The radiological situation in individual water bodies, in Ulyanovsk area, at different extent of human influence


Author: Belozerova E.A.

Reference: Gazette “СОВРЕМЕННЫЕ ПРОБЛЕМЫ НАУКИ И ОБРАЗОВАНИЯ“ (contemporary issues on science and education), 2006

ISSN: 1817-6321


Keywords: 238u, 232th, 235u, 40k, Chernobyl accident, 137cs, 90sr, river, lake

Abstract: Describes specifications of various radionuclides in various water bodies.

URL: http://elibrary.ru/item.asp?id=9910875

full dissertation available at: http://www.science-education.ru/pdf/2006/3/32.pdf

Efficiency of decontaminating agricultural plants from radioactive contamination, depending on their specific contamination by the way of irrigation with water containing radionuclides 

Title: Efficiency of decontaminating agricultural plants from radioactive contamination, depending on their specific contamination by the way of irrigation with water containing radionuclides

Author: Mel’chenko A.I., Mel’chenko E.A., Mel’chenko V.A., Sukhomlinova A.G.

Reference: Proceedings of Kuban State Agrarian University, (Russian: “ТРУДЫ КУБАНСКОГО ГОСУДАРСТВЕННОГО АГРАРНОГО УНИВЕРСИТЕТА“), 1(34), 2012:166-172.

ISSN: 1999-1703

Keywords: radionuclide accumulation, agricultural products, 134Cs; 65Zn (zinc); 115m Cd (cadmium); 238U (uranium)

Abstract: Describes diverse conditions of accumulation of radionuclides in agricultural plants, depending on various ways of irrigation with contaminated water on the plants: by rain, furrow, drip and intersoil. Two ways of decontaminating plants: 1- washing after contamination, 2- cleaning. Experiments with radionuclides 134Cs, 65Zn, 115m Cd and 238U.

URL: http://elibrary.ru/item.asp?id=17391353