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Radioactivity in mushrooms, mosses and soil samples of defined biotops in SW Bavaria-two years after “Chernobyl”

2014/03/31 17:40 | ecology・environment , no classified

Title: Radioactivity in mushrooms, mosses and soil samples of defined biotops in SW Bavaria-two years after “Chernobyl”

Author: E. F. Elstner, Rita Fink, W. Höll, E. Lengfelder, H. Ziegler

Reference:Oecologia, August I 1989, Volume 80, Issue 2, pp 173-177

doi: 10.1007/BF00380147

Keywords : Cesium isotopes, Chernobyl, 40K, Mushrooms

Abstract:Mushrooms, the moos/grass layer and soil samples have been collected in autumn 1987 from two sites in SW-Bavaria in continuation of a former investigation (Elstner et al. 1987). There were still relatively high amounts of 137Cs and 134Cs in all samples. The ratio 137Cs/134Cs changed according to the different half-life times of the two radioisotopes, indicating in nearly all cases the Chernobyl accident as source. The distribution of the radioisotopes within the mushroom populations shows considerable variation, even within the same species and location. Besides 137Cs, 134Cs and 40K no other radioisotopes were detected.

URL: http://link.springer.com/article/10.1007/BF00380147

Effect of chronic irradiation on plant resistance to biotic stress in 30-km Chernobyl nuclear power plant exclusion zone

Title: Effect of chronic irradiation on plant resistance to biotic stress in 30-km Chernobyl nuclear power plant exclusion zone

Author: A. P. Dmitriev, D. M. Grodzinskii, N. I. Gushcha, M. S. Kryzhanovskaya

Reference:Russian Journal of Plant Physiology , November 2011, Volume 58, Issue 6, pp 1062-1068

doi: 10.1134/S1021443711060045

Keywords : Triticum aestivum, Secale cereale, Zea mays, Erysiphe graminis, Puccinia triticana, P. graminis, phytoimmunity, exclusion zone of Chernobyl Nuclear Power plant, low doses of chronic irradiation, plant inhibitors of proteinases

Abstract:It was established in greenhouse experiments that infection with powdery moldew (Erysiphe graminis DC. f. sp. tritici Em. Marchal) and brown rust (Puccinia triticana Erikss. & Henn.) of three wheat (Triticum aestivum L.) cultivars (Mironovskaya 808, Polesskay 70, and Kiyanka) grown from seeds, collected in the Chernobyl exclusion zone, was 1.5–2.0 times higher than of plants grown from control seeds. On field trials in the Chernobyl zone, wheat plant resistance to biotic stress was reduced. At artificial infection with brown rust, the disease development was enhanced on plots with increased radiation background. One of the mechanisms of the declined phytoimmunity potential under the action of low doses of chronic irradiation is evidently a reduced activity of plant proteinase inhibitors. Thus, in wheat and rye (Secale cereale L., cv. Saratovskaya) grains, their activity reduced by 35–60% as compared to control. Active form and race formation in the population of the cereal stem rust causal agent (Puccinia graminis Pers.) was observed in the Chernobyl zone. A “new” population of this fungus with high frequency of more virulent clones than in other Ukraine regions was distinguished. The results obtained independently in greenhouse and field trials performed in the Chernobyl zone demonstrated radiation stress influence on the pathogen-plant interactions. They indicate a necessity of monitoring the microevolutionary processes occurring in both plants and their pathogens under conditions of technogenic stresses.

URL: http://link.springer.com/article/10.1134/S1021443711060045

 

 

Radioactivity in rainwater following the Chernobyl accident

Title: Radioactivity in rainwater following the Chernobyl accident

Author: Dennis A. Wheeler

Reference:Environmentalist , Spring 1987, Volume 7, Issue 1, pp 31-34

doi: 10.1007/BF02277203

Keywords :

Abstract:Rainfall is a widely-acknowledged vehicle for the removal and deposition at ground level of atmospheric-borne materials. The events following the Chernobyl accident demonstrated once again the importance of atmospheric conditions in dispersing, transporting and depositing pollutants. Much attention has been paid to the contamination of vegetation and food products, yet the quality of the contaminated rainwater has been overlooked. This paper reports and summarises the findings from Great Britain and Scandinavia and shows that the issue is far from simple or easily understood.

URL:http://link.springer.com/article/10.1007/BF02277203

Genetic Impact of Low-Dose Radiation on Human and Non-Human Biota in Chernobyl, Ukraine

17:09 | no classified

Title: Genetic Impact of Low-Dose Radiation on Human and Non-Human Biota in Chernobyl, Ukraine

Author: Natasha A. Maznik

Reference: Environmental Monitoring and Assessment , Volume 51, Issue 1-2 , pp 497-506

doi: 10.1023/A:1005979319298

URL: http://link.springer.com/article/10.1023/A%3A1005979319298

Micronuclei in lymphocytes of children from the vicinity of Chernobyl before and after 131I therapy for thyroid cancer

17:06 | cancer , pediatrics

Title: Micronuclei in lymphocytes of children from the vicinity of Chernobyl before and after 131I therapy for thyroid cancer

Author: Wuttke K, Streffer C, Müller WU, Reiners C, Biko J, Demidchik E.

Reference: 1996, Vol. 69, No. 2 , Pages 259-268

doi: 10.1080/095530096146101

Keywords :

Abstract: The present study addresses the monitoring of children from the Belorussian and Ukrainian Republics exposed to the fall-out of the Chernobyl accident. Micronucleus analysis has been performed on 56 children from different areas. The micronucleus frequencies in individuals as well as in regional groups were comparable with controls, except for three donors. Such results had to be expected, taking into account that at least 7 years have passed since the accident. Most of the children whose micronucleus frequencies were determined are suffering from thyroid cancer and were treated by radioiodine (131I) therapy. We studied the effect of in vitro exposure with 131I on micronucleus induction and that proliferative ability of lymphocytes. The present investigation indicates that micronuclei can be usefully employed to detect individual exposures to the incorporated radionuclide within several days after the intake of the radionuclide in a dose range of around 65-390 mGy (effective dose).

URL: http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/8609463

The impact of ionizing radiation on placental trophoblasts

Title: The impact of ionizing radiation on placental trophoblasts

Author: D.J. Kanter, M.B. O’Brien, X.-H. Shi, T. Chu, T. Mishima, S. Beriwal, M.W. Epperly, P. Wipf, J.S. Greenberger, Y. Sadovsky

Reference: Placenta, Volume 35, Issue 2, February 2014, Pages 85-91

doi: http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.placenta.2013.12.011

Keywords : Placenta; Trophoblast; Ionizing radiation; Microarray; JP4-039

Abstract: Exposure to low-dose radiation is widespread and attributable to natural sources. However, occupational, medical, accidental, and terrorist-related exposures remain a significant threat. Information on radiation injury to the feto-placental unit is scant and largely observational. We hypothesized that radiation causes trophoblast injury, and alters the expression of injury-related transcripts in vitro or in vivo, thus affecting fetal growth.

URL: http://www.sciencedirect.com/science/article/pii/S0143400413008710

Strategy for population protection and area rehabilitation in Russia in the remote period after the Chernobyl accident

2014/03/25 16:25 | health protection

Title: Strategy for population protection and area rehabilitation in Russia in the remote period after the Chernobyl accident

Author: Balonov MI, Anisimova LI, Perminova GS

Reference: J Radiol Prot 19:261–269, (1999)

doi: 10.1088/0952-4746/19/3/304

Keywords : population, contamination, protection, radionuclides

Abstract: The report presents the history of the development of criteria for radiation and social protection of the Russian population residing in the areas contaminated with radionuclides after the Chernobyl accident, in the remote time periods after the accident. The tendencies for reduction of standards with time are shown, and their causes are analysed. It is noted that the optimization principle was not applied in the explicit form for population protection. The current radiation situation in the contaminated areas of Russia is described, and the future situation is forecast. Main pathways of external and internal population exposure are described. Modern possibilities for reduction of the population exposure dose are discussed. The authors propose promising criteria and methods for population protection and rehabilitation of contaminated areas in Russia.

URL: http://iopscience.iop.org/0952-4746/19/3/304/

External and internal irradiation of a Rural Bryansk (Russia) population from 1990 to 2000, following high deposition of radioactive caesium from the chernobyl accident

16:19 | no classified

Title: External and internal irradiation of a Rural Bryansk (Russia) population from 1990 to 2000, following high deposition of radioactive caesium from the chernobyl accident

Author: C. Thornberg, R. Vesanen, E. Wallström, I. Zvonova, T. Jesko, M. Balonov, S. Mattsson

Reference: Radiation and Environmental Biophysics, Volume 44, Issue 2 , pp 97-106

doi: 10.1007/s00411-005-0007-2

Keywords : radiocesium, Bryansk

Abstract: In 1990, a joint Nordic-Russian project was initiated in order to make independent estimations of the effective dose to selected groups of inhabitants in a highly contaminated area around the city of Novozybkov in the western Bryansk region of Russia. The inhabitants were living in six villages with initial contamination levels of 137Cs between 0.9 and 2.7 MBq m−2. Some villages had been decontaminated, others not. Both school children and adults participated in the study.

URL: http://link.springer.com/article/10.1007/s00411-005-0007-2

Childhood leukemia in Belarus before and after the Chernobyl accident

16:15 | cancer

Title: Childhood leukemia in Belarus before and after the Chernobyl accident

Author: E. P. Ivanov, G. V. Tolochko, L. P. Shuvaeva, S. Becker, E. Nekolla, A. M. Kellerer

Reference: Radiation and Environmental Biophysics, Volume 35, Issue 2 , pp 75-80

doi: 10.1007/BF02434028

Keywords : leukemia, Belarus

Abstract: Childhood leukemia (ICD 204–208 [1]) incidence rates in the different regions of Belarus are reported for a period before and after the Chernobyl accident (1982–1994). There are, at this point, no recognizable trends towards higher rates.

URL: http://link.springer.com/article/10.1007/BF02434028

Micronucleus formation in lymphocytes of children from the vicinity of Chernobyl after 131I therapy

2014/03/24 17:13 | pediatrics

Title: Micronucleus formation in lymphocytes of children from the vicinity of Chernobyl after 131I therapy

Author: W.-U. Müller, S. Dietl, K. Wuttke, C. Reiners, J. Biko, E. Demidchik, C. Streffer

Reference: Radiation and Environmental Biophysics , May 2004, Volume 43, Issue 1, pp 7-13

doi: 10.1007/s00411-004-0233-z

Keywords : Lymphocytes, children, Iodine-131, thyroid tumours

Abstract: After the Chernobyl accident a statistically significant increase in the number of children with thyroid tumours was observed. In this study 166 children with and 75 without thyroid tumours were analysed for micronucleus formation in peripheral blood lymphocytes using the cytochalasin B approach. The following factors did not significantly affect micronucleus formation: gender, age at the time of the first 131I treatment, tumour stage, tumour type, or metastases; a statistically significant increase in the number of micronuclei, however, was observed for the residents of Gomel compared to other locations, such as Brest, Grodno, and Minsk. The children with tumours received 131I treatment after surgical resection of the tumours. This gave us the opportunity to systematically follow the effect of 131I on micronucleus formation. A marked increase was observed 5 days after the 131I treatment followed by a decrease within a 4–7 months interval up to the next application, but the pre-treatment levels were not achieved. Up to 10 therapy cycles were followed each including an analysis of micronucleus formation before and 5 days after 131I application. The response of the children was characterised by clear individual differences and the increase/decrease pattern of micronucleus frequencies induced by iodine-131 was correlated with a decrease/increase pattern in the number of lymphocytes.

URL: http://link.springer.com/article/10.1007/s00411-004-0233-z

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