ヘッダー画像

Radiation and thyroid diseases: Experiences in Nagasaki and around Chernobyl

Title: Radiation and thyroid diseases: Experiences in Nagasaki and around Chernobyl
Author: Ashizawa Kiyoto, Yamashita Shunichi, Nagataki Shigenobu
Reference: Acta medica Nagasakiensia. 1996, 41(1-2), p.1-7
NAOSITE: Nagasaki University’s Academic Output SITE
Keywords: radiation accident; Chernobyl Nuclear Power Plant; Atomic explosions; Nagasaki; long-term effects; the thyroid gland; tumors; population
Abstract: The needs of a society are closely related to medical progress and its contribution. For instance, research on AIDS and cancer is carried out to meet the demand of contemporary society. Thyroid disease caused by iodine deficiency is one such challenge, and “radiation and thyroid” is another major research theme. Clinical investigation and basic research on radiation-induced thyroid diseases through molecular epidemiology have received much attention from scientists in Nagasaki because of our historical background of atomic bomb exposure and accumulated data of radiationinduced human diseases. We, therefore, introduce the experiences of thyroid examination in Nagasaki and Chernobyl and epidemiological analysis of the effect of radiation on thyroid diseases.
URL: http://sci-pub.info/ref/13009/

Population patterns of development at oncopathology population living in contaminated areas after the Chernobyl accident

Title: Population patterns of development at oncopathology population living in contaminated areas after the Chernobyl accident
Author: Parshkov E. M., Sokolov V. A., Golivets T. P., Kovalenko B. S., Artamonova YU. Z.
Reference: 2009 year, VAK speciality — 14.00.00, author —
Keywords: The Chernobyl accident, Oncology, population incidence, descriptive epidemiological analysis, mechanisms of carcinogenesis, Belgorod and Bryansk area
Abstract: Descriptive epidemiological analysis of more than 200 thousands of new cancer cases over 25-year period (1981-2005) among population of the Belgorod and Bryansk Regions affected as a result of the Chernobyl accident was carried out. Age-gender dependencies of population oncopathology development during this period as well as the dynamics the incidence changes in separate nosological units were determined. It was shown that exposure in low dose after the Chernobyl accident led to wavy change of the incidence with the period 5-7 years and that radiation-induced incidence developed in the format of spontaneous one. The role of physiological factors of organism and processes of cell proliferation and differentiation in cancer development are discussed.
URL: http://cyberleninka.ru/article/n/polovozrastnye-zakonomernosti-razvitiya-onkopatologii-u-naseleniya-prozhivayuschego-na-zagryaznennyh-territoriyah-posle#ixzz3rHTGEqFR

Oncoepidemiologic situation on the territory of the Kaluga region 10 years after the Chernobyl accident

Title: Oncoepidemiologic situation on the territory of the Kaluga region 10 years after the Chernobyl accident
Author: Ivanov V.K., Nilova E.V., Efendiev V.A.*, Gorsky A.I., Pitkevich V.A., Leshakov S.Y.*, Shiryaev V.I.
Reference:”Questions of oncology”1997 vol.43, No.2
Keywords:
Abstract: Medical Radiological Research Centre of RAMS, Obninsk; * – Department of Health, Administration of Kaluga Region, Kaluga Cancer morbidity and mortality has been studied in the contaminated areas of the Kaluga region. The objective of the study was to evaluate to what extent the radiation factor has influenced the existing levels of cancer morbidity and mortality. Analysis was performed of standardized ratios of cancer incidence and mortality and corresponding population risks. The conclusion based on the analysis suggests that the current incidence rates of malignant neoplasms in the population of the studied areas affected by the Chernobyl accident were formed under the influence of a number of factors which showed themselves before the accident. Of particular concern are the trends noticed in oncoepidemiologic processes in the Uly-anovsky district of the region. Thus far no statistically reliable effect of the radiation factor on cancer incidence (except thyroid cancer in the female population of the contaminated areas) has been detected. The cancer morbidity and mortality in the contaminated areas are largely in agreement with the general indicators throughout the region. By and large the drawn conclusion is consistent with data of the world practice on latent periods in inducing radiogenic cancers and extent of biological effects for the irradiation levels to which the population on the contaminated areas is exposed.
URL: http://refereed.ru/ref_810b5710d655a3c837fb6cf8d098fe88.html

Studies of 90Sr presence in milk and commercial dairy products

Title: Studies of 90Sr presence in milk and commercial dairy products

Author: M. Kruk, J. Solecki

Reference: Journal of Radioanalytical and Nuclear Chemistry , November 2011, Volume 290, Issue 2, pp 325-332

DOI: 10.1007/s10967-011-1395-1

Keywords: 90Sr, Milk, Dairy products, Weighted effective doses

Abstract: The aim of this article was to present the studies of radiological level of some commercial dairy products in Mazovian, Kuyavian—Pomeranian and Lublin regions. They were carried out for 27 commercial dairy products such as two specimens of lean cottage cheese, three specimens of cottage cheese containing a limited percentage of fat, three specimens of fat cottage cheese, three specimens of milk containing 3.2% of fat, three specimens of milk containing 2.0% of fat, two specimens of sour cream containing 12% of fat, three specimens of sour cream containing 18% of fat, one specimen of 30% whipping cream, two specimens of homogenized (strawberry and vanilla) cheese, three specimens of hard rennet cheese, one specimen of powdered milk, one specimen of goat milk. For the given commercial dairy products there were calculated effective doses (μSv) obtained after consumption of 1 kg contaminated product for different age groups.

URLhttp://link.springer.com/article/10.1007/s10967-011-1395-1

(日本語) ミルクと市販の乳製品におけるストロンチウム90の研究

Title: Studies of 90Sr presence in milk and commercial dairy products

Author: M. Kruk, J. Solecki

Reference: Journal of Radioanalytical and Nuclear Chemistry , November 2011, Volume 290, Issue 2, pp 325-332

DOI: 10.1007/s10967-011-1395-1

Keywords: 90Sr, Milk, Dairy products, Weighted effective doses

Abstract: The aim of this article was to present the studies of radiological level of some commercial dairy products in Mazovian, Kuyavian—Pomeranian and Lublin regions. They were carried out for 27 commercial dairy products such as two specimens of lean cottage cheese, three specimens of cottage cheese containing a limited percentage of fat, three specimens of fat cottage cheese, three specimens of milk containing 3.2% of fat, three specimens of milk containing 2.0% of fat, two specimens of sour cream containing 12% of fat, three specimens of sour cream containing 18% of fat, one specimen of 30% whipping cream, two specimens of homogenized (strawberry and vanilla) cheese, three specimens of hard rennet cheese, one specimen of powdered milk, one specimen of goat milk. For the given commercial dairy products there were calculated effective doses (μSv) obtained after consumption of 1 kg contaminated product for different age groups.

URLhttp://link.springer.com/article/10.1007/s10967-011-1395-1

Nucleotide variation in the p53 tumor-suppressor gene of voles from Chernobyl, Ukraine.

Title: Nucleotide variation in the p53 tumor-suppressor gene of voles from Chernobyl, Ukraine.

Author: DeWoody JA.

Reference: Mutat Res. 1999 Feb 2;439(1):25-36.

Keywords:

Abstract: The 1986 Chernobyl disaster contaminated vast regions of Ukraine and Belarus with a variety of radioactive isotopes and heavy metals. While over 90% of the radioactive isotopes have decayed into stable compounds, radiation levels in contaminated areas are still extraordinarily high. In fact, some rodents living near the reactor have internal 134,137Cs concentrations approaching 80 000 Bq/g. Several recent genetic analyses of vertebrates have illustrated that mutation rates of organisms exposed to radiation from Chernobyl are higher than in control groups, but none have studied DNA sequences. Nucleotide sequences of rodent mitochondrial genes were originally reported to have been hypervariable, but those results were subsequently retracted. Herein, I report the results of a pilot study to determine the extent of nucleotide variation at the p53 gene in four species of rodents (voles) from Chernobyl and from control sites. I sequenced a 788 bp region (coding and non-coding) of p53 in 30 different mice comprising four different species of Microtus. Nucleotide variation at the population level was due to deletions and substitutions; both were limited to introns. There were no significant differences between the number of haplotypes in radioactive and control populations (p=0.60). Rare or private alleles might have arisen due to unique mutational pressures at Chernobyl. Alternatively, natural selection might have favored one allele over others (i.e., a selective sweep). Neither scenario is strongly supported by these data. Thus, no apparent genetic effects of the Chernobyl disaster on the p53 gene of resident voles were revealed; more extensive surveys will be necessary to determine if mutation rates are indeed elevated in mice from Chernobyl. However, two salient points emerge; the first involves the utility of introns as markers for mutations in coding regions and the second considers the relative merits of cloning in mutation detection studies.

URL:http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/10029670

Preliminary evaluation of the impact of the Chernobyl radiological contamination on the frequency of central nervous system malformations in 18 regions of Europe

Title: Preliminary evaluation of the impact of the Chernobyl radiological contamination on the frequency of central nervous system malformations in 18 regions of Europe

Reference: Paediatric and Perinatal Epidemiology, Volume 2, Issue 3, pages 253–264, July 1988

DOI: 10.1111/j.1365-3016.1988.tb00216.x

Keywords: human breast milk; Iodine-131; nuclear power plant accident; radioiodine

Abstract: The teratological impact of radiological contamination from the Chernobyl accident was evaluated in relation to central nervous system and eye defects in 18 regional registries in nine countries of Western Europe. Six classes of anomaly were analysed: neural tube defects, arhinencephaly, microcephaly and brain reduction, hydrocephaly, anophthalmos and microphthalmos, and congenital cataract. Conceptions up to 31 August 1986 were grouped into two exposure cohorts. In cohort A the sensitive period of fetal development to radiation fell wholly or partly between 1 May and 30 June 1986. Cohort B included all cases exposed during their sensitive period on or after 1 May 1986. Observed frequencies of the six classes of anomaly in the exposed cohorts were compared with expected frequencies calculated from baseline rates for the period 1980–1985. The only significant increase was neural tube defects in Odense, Denmark (four cases observed in cohort A where 0.9 were expected). The results of the study do not show a general increase in the frequency of malformations in the countries of Western Europe. The evidence presented indicates that, in the regions studied, termination of pregnancies or invasive prenatal diagnostic examinations were not justified for women exposed during pregnancy.

URL: http://onlinelibrary.wiley.com/doi/10.1111/j.1365-3016.1988.tb00216.x/abstract

Author: Valentin Golosov

Reference: Soil and Tillage Research, Volume 69, Issues 1–2, February 2003, Pages 85-98

DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/S0167-1987(02)00130-7

Keywords: Chernobyl; ; Soil redistribution; Erosion; Method

137Cs, Soil redistribution, Erosion

Abstract: Vast areas of Europe were contaminated by the Chernobyl-derived in April–May 1986. This paper reports a detailed study of the post-fallout redistribution within a 1 ha field located in the Chasovenkov Verh catchment in the northern part of the Middle-Russian upland. Particular attention was paid to the study of reference inventories. It is shown that the random spatial variability of is similar within undisturbed and cultivated parts of a flat interfluve. Systematic spatial variability is not essential for a relatively short (200 m) topographical unit with simple relief. The analysis of a soil redistribution pattern within the study field using the Chernobyl technique demonstrates that it is possible to identify areas of soil loss/gain. This pattern does not reflect soil redistribution for the whole field, because these have been only 12 years since the Chernobyl accident. Net erosion rates based on method were comparable to soil losses directly measured at the study field.

Nuclear weapon and Chernobyl debris in the troposphere and lower stratosphere

Title: Nuclear weapon and Chernobyl debris in the troposphere and lower stratosphere

Author: Ludwika Kownacka, Zbigniew Jaworowski

Reference: Science of The Total Environment, Volume 144, Issues 1–3, 29 April 1994, Pages 201-215

DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/0048-9697(94)90439-1

Keywords: Radionuclides; Troposphere; Stratosphere; Nuclear tests; Chernobyl

Radionuclides , 90Sr, 137Cs, Troposphere, Stratosphere, 134Cs, Nuclear tests

Abstract: High altitude aircraft sampling of aerosols has been carried out at 4–7 levels up to 15 km over Poland. From 1973 to 1991 a total of 102 vertical concentration profiles of 90Sr, 134Cs and 137Cs, and 83 profiles of 144Ce were determined. One year after the sub-megaton nuclear test in 1980, 137Cs was almost completely removed from the stratosphere. The Chernobyl debris was found in the stratosphere from the third day after the accident until the end of 1991. In May 1986 the concentration of 134Cs and 137Cs at stratospheric altitudes reached about 0.5% of that between the ground level and 3 km. Residence times of Chernobyl radiocesium in the lower stratosphere systematically increased between 1987 and 1991, in variance with those of the debris from nuclear tests. The vertical concentration profiles and the long residence times of radiocesium indicate that the non-violent meteorological processes were transporting the Chernobyl debris into the lower stratosphere, immediately and long after the accident. We postulate that the same quiescent processes transport vast amounts of resuspended particulate organics from the surface of land and sea into high altitudes, and may thus bear on the chemistry of the stratosphere.

URL: http://www.sciencedirect.com/science/article/pii/0048969794904391

 

Effects of physical rehabilitation of the liquidators of the Chernobyl accident with chronic pulmonary pathology

Title:Effects of physical rehabilitation of the liquidators of the Chernobyl accident with chronic pulmonary pathology
Author: CHIKINA S.YU., MESCHERYAKOVA N.N., CHERNYAK A.V., BELEVSKIY A.S., CHUCHALIN A.G.
Reference: Journal of modern clinical medicine. 2008, No.1
Annotation: The influence of physical rehabilitation on the dynamics of functional state of Chernobyl atomic electric station accident liquidators. Physical reabilitation improves tolerance to physical execises, but does”t influence pulmonary function probably because of the fact that special exercises for respiratory muscle weren”t included intothe programm of rehabilitation.
Key words:CHERNOBYL ATOMIC ELECTRIC STATION ACCIDENT LIQUIDATORS , TOLERANCE TO PHYSICAL EXERCISES , RADIONUCLID-INDUCED PNEUMOPATHY
http://cyberleninka.ru/article/n/effekty-fizicheskoy-reabilitatsii-u-likvidatorov-avarii-na-chaes-s-hronicheskoy-bronholegochnoy-patologiey#ixzz3aSvr5hwP

▲ページの先頭へ戻る