Average radiation doses to residents of the South Ukraine caused by the accident at the Chernobyl NPP

Title:Average radiation doses to residents of the South Ukraine caused by the accident at the Chernobyl NPP

Author: Grigorieva L.I.

Reference: Journal: Radiation and Risk (Bulletin of the National Radiation and Epidemiological Registry), Year: 2011 Volume: 20 Issue: 3

Keywords:reconstruction,   inhalation and oral intake of 131І,   radioisotopes of cesium (137Cs; 134Cs),   noble radioactive gases (85mKr; 133mXe),   Effective dose, 06Ru,   103Ru,   141Ce,   144Ce,   95mNb,   132Te,   140Ln

Abstract: Results of retrospective reconstruction of average individual radiation doses got by residents of the South Ukraine due to exposure to radioactive fallouts from the Chernobyl NPP are given in the article. In the work radiometry, spectrometry and dosimetry data collected in the territory of Nikolev, Odessa, Kirovograd oblasts and Autonomous Republic of Crimea were used. The study was carried out by the Nikolaev Research Laboratory Larani in 1986 and later.


Association of radionuclides with the colloidal matter of underground waters taken from observation wells in the zone of impact of Lake Karachai (English available)

Author: Novikov, A. P.; Kalmykov, S. N.; Goryachenkova, T. A.; Kazinskaya, I. E.; Barsukova, K. V.; Lavrinovich, E. A.; Kuzovkina, E. V.; Myasoedov, B. F.

Reference: Gazette “Radiochemistry”, 2009

ISSN: 0033-8311


Keywords: radioisotopes, lake, groundwater, radionuclide contamination 

Abstract: Associations of radionuclides with colloidal particles of various sizes, isolated from underground waters of the Lake Karachai contamination area, were studied. Analysis by photon correlation spectroscopy showed that the total content of colloidal matter in deeper horizons is higher by an order of magnitude than in near-surface horizons. The mean particle radius also increases with the depth. The major fraction of Pu, Am, and Cm is associated with colloids (40�90%). U and Np are associated with colloidal particles to a lesser extent (2�20%), which determines their higher migration mobility in underground waters. The amount of actinides associated with coarse colloidal particles of size from 450 to 200 nm is insignificant. A considerable fraction of actinides is in the deep-lying water (depth =40 m) is associated with colloidal particles of size from 200 to 50 nm. No more than 30% of Pu and Am in water of these horizons is associated with finer colloids (from 10 kDa to 50 nm). With approaching the surface, the amount of actinides in the fraction of nanometer-sized particles (50 nm-10 kDa) increases (to 50%).

URL: http://connection.ebscohost.com/c/articles/47128737/association-radionuclides-colloidal-matter-underground-waters-taken-from-observation-wells-zone-impact-lake-karachai

Radionuclides in ground waters from observation holes in the Shelter local area (probably English)

Author: Odintsov, A. A.; Khan, V. E.; Krasnov, V. A.; Pazukhin, E. M.

Reference: Gazette “Radiochemistry”, 2007

ISSN: 0033-8311

DOI: 621.039.542

Keywords: drinking water, contamination, water pollution, radioisotopes, ricer, lake

Abstract: The volume activity of 3H, 90Sr, 137Cs, 234U, 235U, 238U, 238Pu, 239+240Pu, and 241Am in ground waters from observation holes 1-G-6-G in the north section of the Shelter local area of the Chernobyl Nuclear Power Plant (CNPP) was measured. The distribution of radionuclides in the suspension fractions of the ground waters was evaluated. The main contribution to the pollution of ground waters with uranium is due to natural uranium isotopes: 234,235,238U. The activity ratios of 238Pu, 239+240Pu, and 241Am in ground waters are similar to those in the spent fuel of 4th CNPP block.

URL: http://connection.ebscohost.com/c/articles/27081216/radionuclides-ground-waters-from-observation-holes-shelter-local-area

Isotopes: Properties, Production, Application Book 1

Author: Andreev B.M., Aref’ev D.G., Baranov V.Yu., Bednyakov V.A., Voinova S.E., Kodina G.E., Lisitsa V.S., Kozlova E.I., Kukulin V.I., Orekhov V.T., Nagaev I.Yu., Pesnya A.V., etc

Reference: Monograph  publisher: “Физико-математическая литература”  (physic-mathematic literature), Moscow, 2005   

ISBN: 978-5-9221-05224

Keywords: isotope

Abstract: This is a book concentrating on research of isotope. Contains dissertations from leading professionals to postgraduate students.

URL: http://mirknig.com/knigi/estesstv_nauki/1181546168-izotopy-svoystva-poluchenie-primenenie.html

Transuranic elements in Belarus


Author: Konoplya E.F., Kudryashov V.P., Grinevich S.V., Korol R.A., Bazhanova N.N., Bykovsky V.V.

Reference:  Gazette “РАДИАЦИОННАЯ БИОЛОГИЯ. РАДИОЭКОЛОГИЯ“ (Radiation Biology, Radioecology), 2009

doi: 10.1134/S0869803109040171 

Keywords: isotope, transuranic elements, radioactive fallout

Abstract: Study of the isotopic composition and its changes in the radioactive fallout caused by the Chernobyl accident. Defines levels of transuranic elements in the main components of the ecosystem – air, soil, water, plants and animals in the Republic of Belarus. Describes the peculiar effects of transuranic elements on living organism. 

URL: http://elibrary.ru/item.asp?id=13856732

The chernobyl accident: Modelling of dispersion over europe of the radioactive plume and comparison with air activity measurements

Title: The chernobyl accident: Modelling of dispersion over europe of the radioactive plume and comparison with air activity measurements

Author: Armand Albergel, Daniel Martin, Bernard Strauss, Jean-Michel Gros

Reference: Atmospheric Environment (1967), Volume 22, Issue 11, 1988, Pages 2431-2444


Keywords: Long-range; modelling; radioisotopes; caesium; Chernobyl; nuclear; accident; trajectories; dispersion

Abstract: Following the release of radionuclides from the Chernobyl power plant accident, a long-range transport and deposition model is used to describe the plume dispersion over Europe. The aim of this study is the validation of a fast Lagrangjan model and a better understanding of the relative impact of some mechanisms, such as the initial plume rise. Comparisons between results and 137Cs measurement activity are discussed according to spatial and temporal variations. It is shown that many measurements can be explained only if the initial plume rise taken at 925, 850 and 700mb is considered.


A fast long-range transport model for operational use in episode simulation. Application to the Chernobyl accident

Title: A fast long-range transport model for operational use in episode simulation. Application to the Chernobyl accident

Author: P. Bonelli, G. Calori, G. Finzi

Reference: Atmospheric Environment. Part A. General Topics, Volume 26, Issue 14, October 1992, Pages 2523-2535


Keywords: Long-range; modelling; trajectories; dispersion; radioisotopes; Chernobyl; nuclear; accident

Abstract: A simple Lagrangian puff trajectory model and its software implementation, STRALE, are described. Standard meteorological data are used as input for the simulation of the three-dimensional atmospheric transport and dispersion of a pollutant released by a point source. The schemes adopted to describe the vertical diffusion and the interaction with the mixing layer are discussed on the basis of the comparison between simulated and measured 137Cs activities for the Chernobyl nuclear accident.

URL: http://www.sciencedirect.com/science/article/pii/096016869290104S

Melatonin protection from chronic, low-level ionizing radiation

Title: Melatonin protection from chronic, low-level ionizing radiation
Author: Reiter, Russel J. / Korkmaz, Ahmet / Ma, Shuran / Rosales-Corral, Sergio / Tan, Dun-Xian

Reference: Mutation Research/Reviews in Mutation Research, 751 (1), p.7-14, Jul 2012

doi: 10.1016/j.mrrev.2011.12.002

Keywords: Chronic radiation exposure; Radioisotopes; Lingering radioactivity; Melatonin

Abstract: In the current survey, we summarize the published literature which supports the use of melatonin, an endogenously produced molecule, as a protective agent against chronic, low-level ionizing radiation. Under in vitro conditions, melatonin uniformly was found to protect cellular DNA and plasmid super coiled DNA from ionizing radiation damage due to Cs137 or X-radiation exposure. Likewise, in an in vivo/in vitro study in which humans were given melatonin orally and then their blood lymphocytes were collected and exposed to Cs137 ionizing radiation, nuclear DNA from the cells of those individuals who consumed melatonin (and had elevated blood levels) was less damaged than that from control individuals. In in vivo studies as well, melatonin given to animals prevented DNA and lipid damage (including limiting membrane rigidity) and reduced the percentage of animals that died when they had been exposed to Cs137 or Co60 radiation. Melatonin’s ability to protect macromolecules from the damage inflicted by ionizing radiation likely stems from its high efficacy as a direct free radical scavenger and possibly also due to its ability to stimulate antioxidative enzymes. Melatonin is readily absorbed when taken orally or via any other route. Melatonin’s ease of self administration and its virtual absence of toxicity or side effects, even when consumed over very long periods of time, are essential when large populations are exposed to lingering radioactive contamination such as occurs as a result of an inadvertent nuclear accident, an intentional nuclear explosion or the detonation of a radiological dispersion device, i.e., a “dirty” bomb.

…lower the frequency of cancer initiation. Furthermore, if cancer is initiated, melatonin…Three Mile Island, Chernobyl, and Fukushima [67…increasing the risk of cancer because of its ability…concentrates in the thyroid gland since four atoms…

URL: http://www.sciencedirect.com/science/article/pii/S1383574211001001

Fukushima set for epic clean-up

Title: Fukushima set for epic clean-up

Author: Geoff Brumfiel

Reference: Nature 472, 146-147 (2011)

DOI: 10.1038/472146a


Abstract: The article focuses on the clean-up strategies related to the damaged nuclear reactors of Fukushima Daiichi Nuclear Power Plant in Japan. Environmental and radiological health expert at Colorado State University Ward Whicker suggest that sampling efforts in the locations of the nuclear accident are necessary to monitor radionuclides concentration in the marine environment. Moreover, similar strategy at Chernobyl Nuclear Accident in Ukraine in 1986 is being considered.

URL: http://www.nature.com/news/2011/110411/full/472146a.html



Author: Farfan, E. / Jannik, T. / Marra, J.



Abstract: Fuel-containing materials sampled from within the Chernobyl Nuclear Power Plant (ChNPP) 4th Reactor Unit Confinement Shelter were spectroscopically studied for gamma and alpha content. Isotopic ratios for cesium, europium, plutonium, americium, and curium were identified and the fuel burnup in these samples was determined. A systematic deviation in the burnup values based on the cesium isotopes, in comparison with other radionuclides, was observed. The conducted studies were the first ever performed to demonstrate the presence of significant quantities of {sup 242}Cm and {sup 243}Cm. It was determined that there was a systematic underestimation of activities of transuranic radionuclides in fuel samples from inside of the ChNPP Confinement Shelter, starting from {sup 241}Am (and going higher), in comparison with the theoretical calculations.

URL: http://www.osti.gov/bridge/product.biblio.jsp?query_id=2&page=0&osti_id=1024191